I've run into a similar situation on an iPhone X, and there's rarely any definitive information like what you're seeking available on any phone. The best I found was that iFixit is generally pretty good about measuring the screws and specifying what type they are; i.e., Y000, Phillips, etc.
So get out your calipers and start going through all of the available guides. Whenever you get to a screw you need, note the kind and measurement, then dig through your pile of replacement screws until you find one the right length.
All of the guides that involve removing a screw show the length and type; it would be perfect if there was a rear housing replacement guide like the one I made for the iPhone X, but alas such a guide does not exist. You'll basically just have to go through all of the available guides and look for screw references. You can find all the guides there are in the device folder at the upper right corner of your answer page.
iPhone 12 Pro Max Repair - iFixit
As an example, you can take a look at the Taptic Engine Replacement guide here.
iPhone 12 Pro Max Taptic Engine Replacement - iFixit Repair Guide
If you skip down to Step 19, you'll see it calls out the four screws holding the speaker in place.
In the text to the right, the type of screws (Phillips) and their length is called out.
- Use a Phillips driver to remove the four 1.4 mm screws securing the loudspeaker.
Further into the guide, here's a page showing the removal of a couple of Standoff type screws.
- Two 2.8 mm standoff screws
- One 1.6 mm Phillips screw
There is an actual guide for replacing the rear housing available on a French site called SOSav, and while they do call out the type of screw, the measurements are not provided, so you can get half the information you need from them, but not everything.
Frame iPhone 12 Pro Max repair - Free guide - SOSav
Note that the automatic translation represents Phillips as "cruciform" and the Y000 screws are referred to as "triwing". Standoff screws are called "rivet screws".