Short answer, probably not. The drive would have to be formatted as GPT; if the donor Windows machine was a UFEI system then you MIGHT be able to boot from the drive. You can try connecting the drive to a USB adapter and seeing if the Mac will boot from it. If it shows up as a boot device then it's GPT.
However, even if you can boot into it you'll need a Windows license key and Apple's Boot Camp drivers for the hardware. If your Mac is running OS X now that second part shouldn't be a problem; just run Boot Camp Assistant and make a USB drive with the drivers on it.
Personally, I'd just swap the hard drives, reformat, install OS X, then use Boot Camp Assistant to make the smallest possible/practical OS X partition, then clean-install Windows onto the other partition. Least amount of question marks there.